Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology researchers, led by Douglas Melton, successfully generate mature human insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells from stem cells in vitro, which, when transplanted into mice, secrete insulin appropriately in response to glucose levels.
First draft of human genome is announced; the finalized version is released three years later.
Building on insights into the functioning of the human immune system, Dana-Farber researchers, led by Lee Nadler, devise a way to neutralize immune system cells responsible for graft-versus-host-disease, a potentially dangerous side effect of organ and tissue transplants.
First vaccine for pertussis whooping cough. Paul Dudley White becomes one of America's first cardiologists, a doctor specializing in the heart and its functions, and a pioneer in use of the electrocardiograph , exploring its potential as a diagnostic tool.
William Harvey publishes An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals, describing how blood is pumped throughout the body by the heart, and then returns to the heart and recirculates. Ronald Kahn, recruited to Joslin, discovers alterations in the receptors associated with insulin resistance, found in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Immunizations against polio, diphtheria, mumps, rubella and hepatitis save countless lives and the survival rates for many major diseases are at an all-time high thanks to the discovery of new drugs and the design of sophisticated medical devices and surgical procedures.
Ushering in a powerful new way to detect nascent cancers, Ralph Weissleder and colleagues at Mass General develop fluorescent molecular probes that fluoresce upon contact with tumor enzymes, allowing the detection of minute clusters of tumor cells. An HMS Cell Biology team discovers a novel gene, p73, which resembles the powerful tumor-suppressor gene p53, but unlike its counterpart, p73 is found on only one chromosome and acts in ways quite different from its famous relative.
Daley, find that LIN28, a protein abundant in embryonic stem cells, is aberrantly expressed in about 15 percent of all cancers, revealing a possible new target for drug development.
Greek has published several rebuttals to historically inaccurate claims see the Resources section examining the role animals played in frequently cited breakthroughs. Yet the practice continues.
Using a pulsed dye laser, Mass General researchers become the first to treat the congenital birthmarks known as port-wine stains without scarring. When AFMA makes statements like this we are frequently challenged with past discoveries that have been attributed to animal models.
Born of Greek parents, Galen resides primarily in Rome where he is physician to the gladiators and personal physician to several emperors. Persian physician Rhazes is the first to identify smallpox, as distinguished from measles, and to suggest blood as the cause of infectious disease.
In a key advance toward the improved understanding of brain structures, McLean researchers develop a procedure for extracting and identifying brain lipids.
On the same CNN segment, Tom Holder of Pro-Test stated that every single medical advance in human history has come about because of research using animals and that scientists would love to stop using animals because doing so is very expensive again, false on many levels.
Hoffman synthesizes acetyl salicylic acid, developing what is now the most widely used medicine in the world. Animal testing and research saves lives Since 1900, the average human life span in the United States has increased by almost 30 years.
Tetsuzo Akutzu implant the first artificial heart in a dog. Add to that the huge and highly profitable business that has been built around animal-based research.
Dutch lens grinder Zacharius Jannssen invents the microscope.
Eye and Ear develop a surgical method to restore speech, swallowing and normal breathing in patients with paralyzed vocal cords. The Qinghao plant Artemisia annua was described in a Chinese medical treatise from the 2nd century BCE ; the active ingredient, known as artemisinin, was isolated by Chinese scientists in 1971 and is still used today.
Edward Jenner develops a method to protect people from smallpox by exposing them to the cowpox virus.