Note that the larger clumps of debris all reside within macrophages. View Article Google Scholar 56. It is well established that tissue damage induces an inflammatory response and that innate immune cells are rapidly recruited to any wound site .
R, Karin M 2010 Immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Int J Cancer 23: A study in Drosophila has reported that tumors can systemically stimulate proliferation of the host hematopoietic lineage .
A, Pollard J. The conditions for the reactions were as follows: Gomez-Mejiba S. Transplantations were carried out between 4 hpf and 5 hpf. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the different leukocyte lineages engulf in different ways.
View Article Google Scholar 7. Results It has previously been reported that oncogenic forms of Ras induce malignant transformation of various cell types in zebrafish larvae, and lead to tumor formation in adults  — .
Schafer M, Werner S 2008 Cancer as an overhealing wound: Blood 98: Nat Rev Immunol 9: Figure S2. This provides a further advantage, since it enables us to tease apart the contribution solely from innate immune cells to the earliest events of tumorigenesis, without complications from cross talk with the adaptive immune system.
View Article Google Scholar 24. Immune cells are first attracted to transformed cells at surprisingly early stages, before transformed cells have had a chance to form clones and are thus still singletons or doublets.
However, we did see reduced numbers of LysC: This movie of a Tg kita: Figure 5. Nature 420: Importantly, we also see up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors in the early stage larvae, even before establishment of a mature tumor, suggesting that pro-inflammatory factors may play some role in regulating the initial phase of an oncogene-driven inflammatory response by paracrine mechanisms.
Our short-term blocking experiments show that preventing recruitment of immune cells at these early stages results in reduced growth of transformed cell clones and suggests that immune cells may provide a source of trophic support to the transformed cells just as they do at a site of tissue repair.
This prolonged time spent in the neighborhood of transformed cells may lead—as well as to the changes in dynamic cell behavior we describe here—to phenotypic changes in leukocytes. View Article Google Scholar 67.